|Back to ESL Animation Projects|
|An English for General Academic Purposes Strategy-based Reading Curriculum for EAL Students Preparing to Attend English-medium Undergraduate Courses|
By David Penner, English Instructor - Academic Bridge Program, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE - David.Penner@zu.ac.ae
This paper outlines a strategy-based, twelve-week reading English for general academic preparation (REGAP) curriculum for students of English as an additional language (EAL) planning to enroll in all types of English-medium undergraduate classes. After considering a rationale for implementing a strategy-based REGAP curriculum, a target-situation analysis is conducted and the curriculum is presented in the form of curricular elements, course-level and text-level strategies, and a curriculum evaluation. Curricular elements include goals and objectives, needs assessments, course texts and materials, and formative and summative assessments. Course-level strategies include implementing extensive reading (ER) and building vocabulary from Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL). Text-level strategies include the pre-reading strategies of activating schema, previewing, predicting, reading with a purpose, adopting an alignment, and others, the while-reading strategies of comprehension monitoring and questioning, lexical inferencing, reading for meaning, visualizing with graphic organisers (GOs), note-taking and marking text, and others, and the post-reading strategies of summarising, verifying and revising, sharing responses, as well as others. Following a concluding discussion, a twelve-week course outline in table format is presented, with each week incorporating curricular elements, content to apply new strategies, reviews of previous weeks’ learning, extensive reading, and AWL vocabulary. Finally, a sample week of lesson plans demonstrates how teachers may meaningfully combine all parts of the curriculum in order to meet daily goals and objectives. It is my intention that a curriculum such as this could be implemented into a university or college EAP program comprised of non-integrated courses such as reading, writing, speaking, listening, and grammar.
To view this essay, please donate US$9 through PayPal:
Table of Contents
Alderson, J. (2000). Assessing reading. New York, NY: Cambridge UP. Allen, S. (2003). An analytic comparison of three models of reading strategy instruction. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 41, 319-338.
Anderson, N. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. Modern Language Journal, 75, 460-472.
Auerbach, E. & Paxton, D. (1997). ‘It’s not the English thing’: Bringing reading research into the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 237-261.
Autumn Group. (2009). IQTest.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.iqtest.com/
Banerjee, J. & Wall, D. (2006). Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 50-69.
Barnett, M. (1988). Reading through context: How real and perceived strategy use affects L2 comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 72, 150-160.
Bartlett, F. (1932). A theory of remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Biz/ed. (2009). Introduction to business studies. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/business/strategy/lesson/ introbusiness.htm
Block, E. (1992). See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 readers. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 319-343.
Brantmeier, C. (2005). Effects of reader’s knowledge, text type, and test type on L1 and L2 reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 89(1), 37-53.
Brantmeier, C. (2003). Beyond linguistic knowledge: Individual differences in second language reading. Foreign Language Annals, 36, 33-43.
Brantmeier, C. (2001). Second language reading research on passage content and gender: Challenges for the intermediate-level curriculum. Foreign Language Annals, 34, 325-333.
Brindley, G. & Ross, S. (2001). EAP Assessment: Issues, models, and outcomes. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 148-166). New York, NY: Cambridge UP.
Brock University. (2009). At a glance: Keys to success. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http://www.brocku.ca/sdc/learning/study_write_manual.php
Brown, A., Campione, J., & Day, J. (1981). Learning to learn: On training students to learn from texts. Educational Researcher, 10(2), 14-21.
Brown, R., Beard El-Dinary, P., Pressley, M., & Coy-Ogan, L. (1995). A transactional strategies approach to reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, 49(3), 256-258.
Campos, A., Amor, A., & Gonzalez, M. (2004). The Importance of the keyword- generation method in keyword mnemonics. Experimental Psychology, 51(2), 125- 131.
Carrell, P. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 461-481.
Carrell, P. & Carson, J. (1997). Extensive and intensive reading in an EAP setting. English for Specific Purposes, 16(1), 47-60.
Carrell, P., Pharis, B., & Liberto, J. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23(4), 647-678.
Chamot, A. & O’Malley, J. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21(2), 227-249.
Chung, T. & Nation, P. (2003). Technical vocabulary in specialized texts. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2), 103-116.
Clapham, C. (2001). Discipline specificity and EAP. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 84-100). New York, NY: Cambridge UP.
Clark, M. & Ishida, S. (2005). Vocabulary knowledge differences between placed and promoted EAP students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4, 225-238. Cobb, T. (2009). Levels tests on-line. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from http://www.er.uqam.ca/nobel/r21270/levels/
Cobb, T. (2009). The compleat lexical tutor. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://www.lextutor.ca
Cobb, T. & Horst, M. (2001). Reading academic English: Carrying learners across the lexical threshold. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 315-329). New York, NY: Cambridge UP.
Cohen, A. (1987). The use of verbal and imagery mnemonics in second language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9(1), 43-62.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J. (2007). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238.
Day, R. & Bamford, J. (2002). Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(2), 136-141.
Day, R. & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Drucker, M. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57(1), 22-29.
Dunkelblau, H. (2007). ESL students discover the rewards of reading through reader response journals. ENCOUNTER: Education for Meaning and Social Justice, 20(2), 50-55.
Dunworth, K. (2008). A task-based analysis of undergraduate assessment: A tool for the EAP practitioner. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 315-323.
Ehrman, M., Leaver, B., & Oxford, R. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31, 313-330.
Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System, 33, 209-224. Enright, M., Grabe, W., Koda, K., Mosenthal, P., Mulcahy-Ernt, P., & Schedl, M. (2000). TOEFL 2000 reading framework: A working paper. TOEFL Monograph Series, 17. Retrieved June 12, 2009 from http://ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RM-00-04.pdf
Evans, S. & Green, C. (2007). Why EAP is necessary: A survey of Hong Kong tertiary students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6, 3-17.
Flowerdew, J. & Peacock, M. (2001). The EAP curriculum: Issues, methods, and challenges. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 177-194). New York, NY: Cambridge UP.
Gillet, A. (2009). Using English for Academic Purposes. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://www.uefap.com/vocab/vocfram.htm
Ginther, A., & Grant, L. (1996). A review of the academic needs of native English- speaking college students in the United States. TOEFL Monograph Series, 1. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from http://www.etsliteracy.org/Media/Research/pdf/RM-96-04.pdf
Goldstone, R. (1995). Effects of categorization on color perception. Psychological Science, 6(5), 298-304.
Grabe, W. (2004). Research on teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 44-69.
Grabe, W. (2003). Reading and writing relations: Second language perspectives on research and practice. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second language writing (pp. 242-262). New York, NY: Cambridge UP.
Haghirian, P. & Toussaint, A. (2009). You can't please all of the people all of the time: Wal-Mart's adventures in Japan. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.caseplace.org/d.asp?d=4239
Hansen, E. & Willut, C. (1998). Computer and communications technologies in colleges and universities in the Year 2000. TOEFL Monograph Series, 12. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/rm-97-06.pdf
Harwood, N. (2005). What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4(2), 149-161. Haywood, S. (2009). The AWL highlighter. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/%7Ealzsh3/acvocab/awlhighlighter.htm
Heck, W., Novicki, A., & Rybarcyk, B. (2005). The campus coffee shop: Caffeine conundrums. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.sciencecases.org/caffeine/caffeine.asp
Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and nonsuccessful second language learners. System, (5)2, 110-123.
Hsueh-chao, M. & Nation, P. (2000). Vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 13(1), 403-430.
Huang, S. (2006). Reading English for academic purposes – What situational factors may motivate learners to read? System, 34, 371-383.
Hunt, A. & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17(1), 23-59.
Hyland, K. (2006). English for academic purposes: An advanced resource book. New York, NY: Routledge. InnerBody. (2009). Guide to human anatomy. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
Ikeda, M. & Takeuchi, O. (2006). Clarifying the differences in learning EFL reading strategies: An analysis of portfolios. System, 34, 384-398.
Jiang, X. & Grabe, W. (2007). Graphic organizers in reading instruction: Research findings and issues. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19(1), 34-55.
Kasper, L. (1995). Using discipline-based texts to boost college ESL reading instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 39(4), 298-306.
Ketchum, E. (2006). The cultural baggage of school language reading: An approach to understanding the practices and perspectives of a nonnative product. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 22-42.
Kiely, R. (2009). Small answers to the big question: Learning from language programme evaluation. Language Teaching Research, 13(1), 99-116.
Krashen, S. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Laufer, B. & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary size test of controlled productive ability. Language Testing, 16(1), 33-51.
Laufer-Dvorkin, B. (2006). Comparing focus on form and focus on forms in second language vocabulary learning. The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 63(1), 149-166.
Lawrence, L. (2007). Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies revisited: Implications for instruction. The Reading Matrix, 7(3), 55-71.
Leung, B. & Verhoef, M. (2008). Survey of parents on the use of naturopathic medicine in children. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 98-104.
Luton, G. (2009). Vocabulary exercises for the Academic Word List. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.academicvocabularyexercises.com/ Macalister, J. (2008). Implementing extensive reading in an EAP programme. ELT Journal, 62(3), 248-256.
Mader, S. (2009). Human biology, 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Masuhara, H. (2003). Materials for developing reading skills. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 340-363). London: Continuum.
McDonough, K. & Chaikitmongkol, W. (2007). Teachers’ and learners’ reactions to a task-based EFL course in Thailand. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 107-132.
McKenzie, J., Pinger, R., & Kotecki, J. (2005). An introduction to community health, 5th ed. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ming-tzu, K. & Nation, P. (2004). Word meaning in academic English: Homography in the Academic Word List. Applied Linguistics, 25(3), 291-314.
Mohseni-Far, M. (2008). In search of the best technique for vocabulary acquisition. Estonian Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 121-138.
Murphy, J. (1996). Integrating listening and reading instruction in EAP programs. English for Specific Purposes, 15(2), 105-120.
Nation, P. (2007). The four strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 2-13. Nation, P. & Crabbe, D. (1991). A survival language learning syllabus for foreign travel. System, 19(3), 191-201.
Norris, J. & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417-528.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching & learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Oxford, R. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: Concepts and relationships. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 41, 271-278.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York, NY: Newbury House Publishers.
Oxford, R. (1989). Learning strategy inventory for language learners. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://ell.phil.tuchemnitz.de/cing/frontend/questionnaires/oxford_quest.php
Paris, S., Lipson, M., & Wixson, K. (1994). Becoming a strategic reader. In R. Ruddell, M. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading: 4th Edition, (pp. 788-810). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Paris, S., Wasik, B., & Turner, J. (1991). The development of strategic readers. In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol II (pp. 609-640). New York, NY: Longman.
Parry, K. (1991). Building a vocabulary through academic reading. TESOL Quarterly, 25(4), 629-653. Reading Strategies Curriculum
Powell, S. (2005). Extensive reading and its role in Japanese high schools. The Reading Matrix, 5(2), 28-42.
Prince, P. (1996). Second language vocabulary learning: The role of context versus translation as a function of proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 478 -493.
Romero-Ghiretti, G., White, V., Berg, B., Domínguez Quintana, R., Grayson, B., & Weng, M. (2007). Research and theory driven insights: Ten suggestions for L2 reading instruction. The Reading Matrix, 7(3), 44-54.
Rosenblatt, L. (1994). The transactional theory of reading and writing. In R. Ruddell, M. Rapp Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading: 4th Edition (pp. 1057-1092). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the ‘good language learner’ can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), pp. 41-51.
Ruddell, R., Rapp Ruddell, M., & Singer, H. (1994). Introduction. In R. Ruddell, M. Rapp Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading: 4th Edition (pp. 812-815). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Rumelhart, D. (1994). Toward an interactive model of reading. In R. Ruddell, M. Rapp Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading: 4th Edition (pp. 864-894). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Schneider, S. (2009). The worst-case scenario. Nature, 458(7242), 1104-1106. Seliet, H. (2005). BTEC introduction to business. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Publishers.
Shih, M. (1992). Beyond comprehension exercises in the ESL academic reading class. TESOL Quarterly, 26(2), 289-318.
Spack, R. (1997). The acquisition of academic literacy in a second language: A longitudinal study. Written Communication, 14, 3-62.
Stanovich, K. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(1), 32-71.
Tanaka, H. & Stapleton, P. (2007). Increasing reading input in Japanese high school EFL classrooms: An empirical study exploring the efficacy of extensive reading. The Reading Matrix, 7(1), 115-131.
TestPrepPractice.net. (2009). Testpreppractice.net. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.testpreppractice.net/IELTS/
TheInkBlot. (2006). Theinkblot.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://theinkblot.com/ Tierney, R. & Pearson, D. (1983).
Toward a composing model of reading. Language Arts, 60(5), 1-29.
Waring, R. & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2), 130-163.
Widdowson, H. (1984). Reading and communication. In J. Alderson & A. Urqhart (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language (pp. 213-226). London: Longman.
Williams, E. & Moran, C. (1989). Reading in a foreign language at intermediate and advanced levels with particular reference to English. Language Teaching, 22(4), 217-228.
Wolf, D. (1993). A comparison of assessment tasks used to measure FL reading comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 77, 473-489.
Yigiter, K., Sariçoban, A., & Gürses, T. (2005). Reading strategies employed by ELT learners at the advanced level. The Reading Matrix, 5(1), 124-139.
Zamel, V. (1992). Writing one’s way into reading. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 463-485.
Zhang, L. (2008). Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Instructional Science, 36, 89-116.
Zhang, L. & Wu, A. (2009). Chinese senior high school EFL students’ metacognitive awareness and reading-strategy use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 21(1), 37 -59.
Zhu, W. & Flaitz, J. (2005). Using focus group methodology to understand international students' academic language needs: A comparison of perspectives. TESL-EJ, 8(4), 1-11.
To view this essay, please donate US$9 through PayPal: